01 November 1985
The present technology of retrofit hydronic heat pumps are described in detail and promising possibilities for improvement in both performance and cost are identified. The background papers include system layout, flowsheet, controls, typical range of performance and cost as verified by actual case studies. Improved cost-effectiveness can be achieved by reduced operating costs and decreased first costs. The reduction of operating costs can be achieved mainly by advanced heat pumps. The reduction of first costs can be achieved mainly by reduced installation and connection costs. The reduction of first costs can also be achieved by optimized financing model using tax reduction and subsidies, too. In order to attain an increased market penetration with heat pumps, particularly in the area of single-family houses, it is necessary: * to inform the consumer on the advantage of this relatively new technology; * to overcome his uncertainty caused by faults made in the past, and; * to create a climate of confidence. If it is possible to gain the last item, the importance of cost-effectiveness will decrease. It will then be possible to sell the product heat pump and not economics.