01 October 1994

Working Fluid Safety – Final report

Under Annex 20 of the IEA Heat Pump Programme, an international study entitled Working Fluid Safety has been carried out by five countries. This study has provided a valuable insight into the risks associated with the use of refrigerants. The results will help determine the choice of working fluid for tomorrow’s equipment, and in the precautions needed for operation at an acceptable risk.

Working Fluid Safety is the Final Report of Annex 20. It covers most of the alternative working fluids now under consideration, ranging from natural refrigerants such as propane and ammonia, to synthetic substances such as HFCs. All potential hazards and consequences associated with these substances are addressed, including fire, explosion, intoxication and asphyxiation. Risks are assessed firstly by examining accident records, and secondly by applying calculation techniques to predict the effect of accidents.