30 May 2005


Almost any conventional heating and air-conditioning system may be satisfactorily modeled for energy
analysis purposes with a steady-state analysis. Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems and hybrid GSHP
(HGSHP) systems are a clear exception. The fact that ground temperatures may change over a number of
years adds some complexity to the modeling effort, and has delayed availability of GHSP and HGSHP
models in building energy analysis programs. This paper gives an overview of recent research and developments
in ground source heat pump system simulation, design, and optimization. First, developments related
to modeling of components of the ground source heat pump (GSHP) system are presented – vertical
ground loop heat exchanger, water source heat pump, standing column well, and several types of supplemental
heat rejecters used in hybrid GSHP systems. Second, application of the simulation for design of vertical
ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE) will be introduced. Third, several applications of using system
simulation in the design of GSHP systems will be presented. Finally, preliminary investigations of using the
simulation within an optimization procedure will be discussed.