18 May 2017
Environmental concerns raised by high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants have triggered a series of regulatory activities around the world to curtail the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This paper will review activities under the Montreal Protocol as well as actions taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Commission on HFCs. Current research on lower GWP refrigerants will be summarized and efforts to update safety codes and standards so that many of the most promising alternatives could be safely used will be examined. Finally, initiatives aimed at improving the management of refrigerants to reduce leak and service emissions, and to promote the recycling, recovery, reclaiming, and end of life destruction of refrigerants will be discussed.