18 May 2017
In this work different business models that could arise from using the flexibility of residential heat pumps in a smart grid context are analysed. The investigated applications are: operation to reduce loading of the electric distribution grid, operation at the reserve markets, operation at the EEX spot market, operation to reduce the need for balancing-energy, operation to maximise PV self-consumption and operation to increase HP efficiency.
For each business case a three-level analysis is conducted. 1) The requirements, regulations, competences and strategic partners for each business model are analysed using the business model canvas method. 2) The possible revenue streams are estimated for a German single family house. 3) Finally a technical evaluation of the different options is conducted.
Results show that due to high-end costumer prices, grid fees and complicated market requirements, less integrated business models are more attractive than the direct use of heat pump flexibility in the reserve or spot market or providing balancing energy. However additional revenues could be generated by using heat pump flexibility. E.g. providing secondary reserve or balancing energy can yield additional revenues up to approx. 80 €/kWHP,el/a for heat pumps.