01 September 1999

Natural Working Fluids – a challenge for the future – Workshop proceedings


Natural working fluids can be excellent refrigerants, with zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible effect on global warming. However, the application of equipment containing natural working fluids is clearly hampered by regulations and by the cautious attitude of compressor manufacturers. What can be done to improve this situation and promote safe use of natural refrigerants in heat pumps?

These issues were discussed during the workshop Natural working fluids for heat pumps – a challenge for the future. Discussions covered the hurdles and stimuli for the market introduction of residential and small commercial heat pumps using natural working fluids, particularly hydrocarbons and ammonia. The workshop was organised jointly by the project partners of the Thermie-B project Concerted actions for the promotion of heat pumps in Europe and the IEA Heat Pump Centre.

This publication compiles the 10 papers presented at the workshop, plus a summary of the afternoon plenary session. The papers cover EU policy towards implementing the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols, liability aspects in Europe, new standards under development, and the views of hydrocarbon or ammonia equipment manufacturers. Safety aspects for hydrocarbons, ammonia and CO2, are also an important consideration.


  • You can order this document

    Documents of interest can be orderd by filling out the form below.

    Note: some publications are chargeable. You can see the price in the field below.

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.