01 November 1985
35 experts representing utilities, manufacturers, consultants and research organization from HPC member countries discussed technical and economical problems of such retrofits. The result of this workshop revealed that an expansion of the retrofit heat pump market in Europe will require either lower investment costs or a lower electricity-to-oil price ratio than currently exists. Manufacturers are unable to significantly reduce the first costs of installed systems at present sales levels. To increase the attractiveness of such investments, additional governmental and utility programs are necessary. It is therefore not possible with current energy prices to create heat pump systems for retrofit that are cost competitive enough for the consumer. Background material was prepared for this workshop by the Heat Pump Centre, including reviews of the national heat pump markets of Sweden, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Japan, as well as a parametric study of heat pump economics, regarding variations of first cost, energy prices, climate, and heat pump efficiency. A study of the impact of heat pump utilization on the environment, a workshop guideline, and background papers for the two Working Groups (Retrofit with Air-Water Heat Pumps; Retrofit with Water (Brine)- Water Heat Pumps) were also prepared by the HPC. This publication comprises 13 parts.