01 November 1985
This background paper deals with water/brine-water heat pumps, delivering heat to a hydronic heating system and possibly also for domestic hot water. The study is restricted to heating only heat pumps in retrofit situations for one- and two-family buildings. The air-water heat pumps are covered in a parallel background paper “A” /4/. Ways of possibly decreasing first cost are discussed, together with measures to increase the SPF, when installing water/brine source heat pumps in retrofit cases for one- and two-family buildings. Comparing actual cost and performance of the heat pump with the cost of relevant alternatives shows that an improvement on the part of the heat pump is necessary in order to improve market penetration on most markets.