24 June 2014
This paper applies a techno-economic analysis to identify promising heat pump integrations in an archetype large office building in Toronto, Canada. A detailed reference case
energy model of a typical Canadian ten-story office is first developed using current national energy codes. This model then serves as a base for four market available heat pump systems,
including conventional air-source, cold climate air-source, ground-source, and gas-fired absorption heat pumps. Energy performance and utility costs determined from annual system
simulations are then analyzed within a techno-economic framework examining capital, maintenance, and operational costs. Results show that cold climate air-source heat pumps and ground-source heat pumps demonstrate the most potential, achieving up to 53% energy savings while reducing lifecycle cost by nearly 15% in comparison to the reference case.