30 May 2005


Pacific Rim nations (The Eastern Culture) have become a major market development area by
aggressive European or North American (The Western Culture) community persons, businesses, and
countries. Demand savings (kW), energy savings (kWh) and environmental quality are primary concerns
within both cultures.
From the late 1980s to today the American author1 has been successful in obtaining cooperative
agreements, design, and export of Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) systems to the Peoples Republic of
China (PRC). The first Chinese author2 was successful for project initiation, management, negotiation and
overall approval of a Joint China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and US Department of
Energy (DOE) project during 1998 to 2001 for a variety of commercial office buildings within the PRC.
The second Chinese Author3 was successful for China commercial market development and is the
Manager of the Beijing JIKE Energy New Technology Development Co.
The Beijing JIKE Energy New Technology Development Company (JIKE) received a grant from
The United States Trade and Development Agency (TDA) for development of GHP projects within the
People’s Republic of China (PRC)4. During 2002 to 2004, the project planned for, designed, installed,
operated, and maintained GHP systems and building structures, carefully chosen for their suitability. Each
project was to be a showcase for increased use of GHP technology in the PRC.
The authors of this paper truthfully believe that GHP technology and service is beneficial to Western
and Eastern culture’s government, business and all their people. The authors also believe there is a need
for information on:
1. Items to understand,
2. Factors to consider, and
3. How to properly estimate GHP systems for commercial buildings throughout the world.
The purpose of this paper is to provide information and procedures for the items discussed above.
This information should be invaluable for work in both countries and other areas of the world. This paper
will provide economic, technical, social and business information from manufacturers, professional
1 The author’s direct contact for assistance in design, transfer of goods and construction in the 1980’s was with the Shanghai
Minhang United Development Co., Ltd. (SMUDC) of Shanghai, The Peoples Republic of China. During the 1996 to 1999 period
the direct contact was with the co-author of this paper and the U.S. Department of Energy. During the 2001 to 2004 period the
direct contact was with the co-author of this paper and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency.
2 The author’s direct contact for project initiation, purchase of goods, design and construction during 1996 to present was with
the Chinese Academy of Science, the co-author of this paper, and PRC building owners, managers, engineers in northern, central
and southern provinces of that country.
3 Mr. Li Yuanpu, Manager of Geothermal Heat Pump Center, Beijing JiKe Energy New Technology Development Co. No. 25,
Qinghua East Road, Haidian District. Beijing 100083, China.
4 Mr. William S. Fleming of Jacwill Services, Inc. was the U.S. person and firm selected by Beijing Jike and the U.S. Trade and
Development Agency.
organizations, professional experience, sites and actual GHP projects within the Peoples Republic of
China and North America.