Comparison of Low Charge Evaporators for Industrial Heat Pumps

Generation of thermal energy for heating and cooling often has a negative environmental impact due to the fuels used. The need for such fuels decreases with installation of heat pumps. But the heat pump in itself is a potential source of greenhouse gases, as the refrigerants used often have a high global warming potential, GWP. This is regulated in the Kigali amendment to the Montreal protocol, and the heat pumping industry is searching for alternatives. Two major challenges regarding this is that many of the alternatives are either expensive or toxic. Therefore, the development of heat pumps must be in the direction of high efficiency, and low need for refrigerant.

The heat exchangers in industrial heat pumps are divided into two groups, based on the technique that they are using: “shell and tube” or “plate”. These groups then include various types of heat exchangers, each with their own pros and cons regarding characteristics such as size, geometry, and area of use. This article has predominantly looked at the difference regarding refrigeration charge per kilowatt, i.e., how much refrigerant that is needed for a certain thermal output.

Four types of heat pumps were compared under the same conditions: 1000 kW evaporator capacity, ammonia with saturated temperature of 2 °C as refrigerant, and the same inlet and outlet temperatures. The comparison showed that there is a large difference in charge per kW between the heat pumps. The one that required the lowest amount of refrigerant, 46 kg, was the DX-Shell type, which is the latest innovation. Some positive characteristics with this type are a simple control system and the possibility of cleaning of the tubes.

The ratio between the DX-Shell type and the one with the highest need of refrigerant per kW is more than a factor four: the PHE type needed as much as 209 kg to reach the same level. Additionally, their costs were compared. The DX-Shell type is 12% more expensive than the PHE type. Which, on the other hand, is 3% more expensive than the cheapest one, the DX-tube type, but then the refrigerant charge is much lower, at 65 kg. Thus, apart from the various types being relevant for various implementations, in the choice there is also a trade-off between purchase cost and refrigerant charge.

Zahid Ayub, Ph.D., P.E., USA (Isotherm)
Adnan Ayub, D.Eng, P.E., USA (Isotherm)

The text is shortened by the HPC team

Read the full article here

Read the full HPT Magazine here

China joins HPT TCP

The HPT TCP has expanded with a new member: China. The HPT team and the other member countries are warmly welcoming them into the collaboration programme.

Heat pumping technologies are predicted to have a great future in China, as they are seen as part of the solution for clean energy. The market development is already positive, with the sales value for air-source heat pumps tripling since 2013 and increasing with almost 60% since 2016.

This development is supported by governmental decisions and policies. For example, Northern China has an ambitious Clean Heating Policy stating that half of the heating shall be through clean energy by the end of this year. By  2021, this shall be increased to 70% at the same time as coal burning shall be reduced with 74 million tons. Heat pumps are mentioned as one of the important technologies in this transition, which should be based on local conditions.

With a new member on board, hopefully even more opportunities for collaboration will emerge. So, once again: welcome, China, to the HPT TCP!

HP Forum 2019 – Registrations are open!

Don’t forget to register for the HP Forum 2019 in Brussels on May 15-16!

The HP Forum will dig into the policy implications (opportunities and challenges) for the heat-pump industry of the newly adopted EU laws emerging from the “Clean energy 4 all package” as well as from the “EC Strategy for a low carbon economy in 2050”. It will also provide insights into more technical policies, such as Ecodesign and F-gas regulations. In addition to that, the latest market data will be presented and we will try to understand what digitalization means for heat pumps and if we can tackle the renovation challenge.

Join the HP Forum on 15. and 16.5.2019 in Brussels. If you are an EHPA member, please note that the general assembly will take place in the afternoon of the 14th, followed by a networking reception only for members.

Read more about the HP Forum and register for the event

The Prize Criteria Tool from Global Cooling Prize

The Global Cooling Prize has developed a Prize Criteria Tool so you can estimate how your technology will score in the Prize. 

All the participating cooling technologies need to demonstrate that they meet or exceed the Primary and Supplementary Prize Criteria of the Global Cooling Prize to compete in the competition. The “Primary Criteria” includes the Climate Impact and Affordability Criteria. The “Supplementary Criteria” includes the criteria on refrigerant, water, power demand, scalability, emissions, materials and operational requirements. All the prize criteria must be met by the participating cooling technologies to qualify in the prize. You can learn more about the Prize Criteria here.

For the purpose of the prize, the performance of all the participating cooling technologies will be evaluated against the performance of the baseline AC unit.

Source: Global Cooling Prize Newsletter

Swedish Climeon’s machine converts waste heat to electricity

Bill Gates energy fund, which is also backed by a number of other heavy tech giants, has now made a substantial investment in the financing company.

Climeon utilizes waste heat from, among other things, steel mills and cruise ships and converts it into electricity. It has also looked at extracting electricity from deep boreholes.

Now the energy fund Breakthrough Energy Ventures (BEV) has started a collaboration with Cliemeon and invested SEK 115 million/ USD 1.6 million in its financing company Baseload Capital.

It was Microsoft founder Bill Gates who in 2016 took the initiative to BEV. Since then, Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, Amazon’s Jeff Bezos and Alibaba’s Jack Ma have invested money in the BEV. The fund will invest SEK 9 billion/USD 960 million in new technology that can counter climate change.

“Potential to deliver CO2-free electricity on a large scale”

Baseload Capital also invests in companies that build geothermal power plants. BEV’s investment manager, Carmichael Roberts, believes that geothermal power plants can create change in a way that the intermittent power of sun and wind cannot.

“Baseload Capital, together with Climeon’s innovative technology, has the potential to deliver carbon dioxide-free electricity on a large scale, economically and efficiently,” he says in a statement.

(Photo: Climeon)

Source: Ny Teknik

Abstract submission for the Heat Pump Conference 2020 is open

The abstract submission for the 13th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference at Jeju, South Korea, in 2020 is now open! The theme for the conference will be “Heat Pumps – Mission for the Green World”.

Important dates

  • Abstract submission open : January 1, 2019
  • Abstract submission due : June 30, 2019
  • Full paper submission due : December 1, 2019
  • Final paper submission due : February 15, 2020


Within the conference program, participants will encounter numerous cutting-edge presentations on the following issues:

  • Recent Advances on Heat Pumping Technologies
  • Environment-friendly Technology
  • Systems and Components
  • Field Demonstration and Multi-disciplined Applications
  • Research and Development
  • Policy, Standards, and Market
  • International Activities

Visit the conference website here

New film from Canada

The HPT TCP Canadian partner Canmet ÉNERGIE/Canmet ENERGY has produced a short film about air-source heat pumps.

Watch the film here!


Short versions of the Annexes results

One of the main activities within HPT TCP is to run collaborative research, development, demonstration and deployment projects which we call Annexes. Since the start of the TCP in 1978, we have run 52 Annexes about heat pumping technologies. 

But what did the Annexes result in? If you want to learn more about the outcomes, take a look in our publication database and read the two page summaries! You find the two page summaries here.

Read about our ongoing Annexes here

Read about our completed Annexes here

Global Cooling Prize seeks innovators

The very first Global Cooling Innovation Summit will see the launch of the Global Cooling Prize. The Prize encourages development of a residential cooling device with low climate impact to meet future demands for cooling. Innovators across the globe are invited to drive a technology revolution to provide cooling to all, without warming the planet.

To win the prize, some criteria must be fulfilled. Most importantly, the prize seeks development and innovation leading to a product with only one fifth of the climate impact compared to current standard products. Other criteria concern e.g. affordability, power draw, water usage and scalability.

The launching Summit is held in New Dehli, India on the 12th-13th November. It will bring together leaders from around the world to explore concrete means and pathways to address the threat caused by a globally increased demand for residential cooling.

After the launch, applications will be accepted until August 2019. The most interesting ideas will get support for development, and the final award ceremony will be held in the end of 2020. It is estimated that a successful technology, when scaled up, will have the potential to save 100 gigatons of carbon by 2050. This in turn could prevent 1 degree C of global warming by 2100. At the same time, the technology allows for a better standard of living for people around the globe.

The Global Cooling Prize is established by a global coalition led by Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), Conservation X Labs, Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE), and CEPT University and supported by Mission Innovation and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.

Read more about the prize:


Join our LinkedIn group!

The Heat Pumping Technologies – HPT TCP is a forum for distribution of news and discussions within the area of heat pumping technologies.The Linkedin group is now open for everyone and we invite you to be part of our network.

Join the group here

See you on LinkedIn!

/Heat Pump Centre

Report from Technology Collaboration Programmes national co-ordination day

On October 2 Caroline Haglund Stignor, assistant manager of HPC, attended the national co-ordination day of the Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCPs) in Prague, Czech Republic.

The meeting was arranged by the Ministry of Industry and trade and of the Czech republic, and the Technology Platform “Sustainable Energy for the Czech Republic” (TPUE) in collaboration with the International Energy Agency (IEA). The aim of the meeting was to discuss the Czech Republic’s current and potential future participation in TCPs.  The national TCP co-ordination days did also provide stakeholders with an opportunity to strengthen representation of national interest and strategies in TCP activities, to exchange information on TCP outputs, identify topics and projects of national interest and enhance communication among research and innovation actors.

Caroline Haglund Stignor gave a presentation about the HPT TCP in order to promote the TCP and raise the Czech Republic’s interest in becoming a member country in the HPT TCP.

Notes from the meeting

The meeting was introduced by Simone Landolina from IEA secretariat who explained how the IEA and the TCPs work.

He told the participants about the IEA Publications which summaries:

  • Where are we today? E.g. the Clean Energy Tracking reports
  • Where do we get there? E.g. the World Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives
  • How do we get there? E.g. the “Future of Cooling” report and the different technology roadmaps

Simone Landolina also presented that after remaining flat for three years the CO2 emissions rose again in 2017 to an all-time high level! Climate goals require early emissions peak reduction and technology innovations, and to reach that we will need all the technologies – energy efficiency, renewable energy, carbon capture storage etc. He stated that out of 38 clean energy technologies, only four are on track:

  • Solar PV, driven by strong growth in China, India and US
  • Lighting
  • Data centers and networks
  • Electric cars, 3 million are on the roads today, still only represent 1% of the cars sold

Cooling is NOT on track, electricity demand for Air-Conditioning can more than triple to 2050!

Simone Landolina did also tell the audience that pre-digital energy systems are defined by unidirectional flows and distinct roles, digital technologies enable a multi-directional and highly integrated energy system.

He concluded that:

  • Faster technological innovation can foster economic growth, while also improving energy security and sustainability
  • Out of 38 clean energy technologies 4 are on track, 23 need improvements and 11 are off track.
  • Need to focus on all sectors; lack of progress on some sectors puts even more pressure on others
  • Government policy and market design remain key in spurring innovation, deployment and private investment
  • The IEA remains committed to providing its members with timely data, rigorous analysis, and a unique global network of Technology Collaboration Programmes to accelerate real-word solutions

Thereafter the Technology Collaboration Programmes of Bioenergy, District Heating and Cooling including Combined Heat and Power, Heat Pumping Technologies, Solar Heating and Cooling were presented by representatives from the TCPs. The Demand-Side Management TCP was briefly presented by Simone Landolina from IEA. Those TCPs had been selected since they had been identified as the most interesting ones for participation by the Czechs.

The Czech heat pump market is still small but has set off during the last years. During 2017 about 16 000 heat pumps were sold, according to EHPA.

One conclusion from all the presentations is that the structure of the TCP work differs from TCP to TCP depending history, market and technology. In the end a lot of international collaboration is performed, and many interesting results are achieved. These are necessary and needed in order to reach the energy and climatic ambitions of the IEA!

EHPA: Very positive outlook for the heat pump market

Press release from European Heat Pump Asociation (EHPA)

The EHPA market outlook is out and it reveals a growing market for the 4th year in a row! At the end of the year, the counter had reached 10.6 million, the result of 1.11 million units sold in 2017 (+10%). Signs from several markets in Europe indicate, that this growth continues in 2018 since more than 11 million HPs (in total) were installed by the end of the first half of 2018.

The report shows that 10,6 million heat pumps installed generate:

  • Useful heat generated 181,1 TWh
  • Renewable energy 116 TWh
  • CO2 emission saved 29,7 Mt
  • Final energy saved 148 TWh
  • Storage capacity  369 GW

If this market growth continues, a doubling of the European Heat Pump Market by 2024 is realistic. This is not only good news for consumers but also for national governments and for society as a whole. Those who will accompany the deployment of the heat-pump technology will benefit from a single solution to help them fulfil at the same time the various new obligations arising from recently adopted EU energy policies (renewable heating and cooling, energy savings, energy efficient buildings, increased demand-response, etc.).

The 2018 Market and Statistics Report is now available and features:

  • 2017 sales figures on 21 European countries
  • EU policy trends
  • Industry trends
  • EHPA Forecast until 2020 for all 21 countries

For more information, interviews or to receive a copy of the report (free for the press), please contact Ms. Eirini Litina.

Contact details
Ms Eirini Litina, +32 (2) 400 10 35,

The Brussels based European Heat Pump Association (EHPA) represents the majority of the European heat pump industry. It has currently 119 members from all parts of the industry’s value chain: heat pump and component manufacturers, research institutes, universities, testing labs and energy agencies. Its key goal is to promote awareness and proper deployment of heat pump technology in the European market place for residential, commercial and industrial application. EHPA coordinates the European Quality label for heat pumps and the EUCERT education and training scheme for heat pump installers. It compiles the annual sales statistics and market outlook. For more information, please visit:

Expert workshop preparation Annex Comfort Climate Box

The IEA Technology Collaboration PRogram on Heat Pumping Technologies and the IEA Energy Storage TCP organize a workshop to finalize the discussion on the objectives, scope and activities of the new Annex. The outcome of this workshop will be a workplan for this new annex on the Comfort Climate Box.

If you are interested in joining this new Annex, you are invited to participate in this workshop. The objective of the workshop is to finalize the working program, to define the national contributions and to establish the core group, including subtask leaders of this new joint Annex.

If you plan to participate in this new Annex, please fill in the registration form (also if you want to participate, but you are not able to come to this Preparation Workshop). If you want to give a brief presentation (pitch), please also indicate this in the form. There will be time for updates on latest developments.
If you have updates but not able to come, please indicate the updates in the form.

If you know other partners, do not hesitate to forward this invitation!

Workshop specifics

  • Start: Thursday January 17th 2019 – 1pm
  • End: Friday January 18th 2019 –  2pm
  • Location: RVO – Croeselaan 15 – Utrecht – The Netherlands (app. 30 minutes by train from Schiphol Airport)

Registration form

To register for the workshop, please use this registration form.

Also, if you are interested in this new Annex, but you are not able to attend the workshop, please fill in the registration form as well and we will keep you informed on the developments.



If you would like to receive more information or if you have questions, please contact the secretariat of the IEA HPT TCP or the secretariat of the IEA Energy Storage TCP. Contact person for IEA HPT TCP is Marion Bakker and for IEA Energy Storage TCP is Teun Bokhoven.


Preliminary agenda

Thursday November 1st   2018 – start at 1pm
Welcome and introduction of participantsSophie van Eck and Joram Snijders (Ministry of Economic Affairs & Climate and Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations)
Background of this joint Annex and link to Mission InnovationJohn Dulac (IEA) / MI#7 leadership
Work plan and outline of Annex Comfort Climate BoxTeun Bokhoven (ECES TCP) and Marion Bakker (HPT TCP)
Update reports by participantsParticipants
Discussion round 1: scope, objectives and deliverablesAll
Conclusions day 1
Dinner in Utrecht Hosted by TKI Urban Energy


Friday November 2th 2018 – start at 9am
Discussion round 2: work packagesall
Discussion round 3: organizational issuesall / operating agent
Any other businessall
Follow up / start of annex from 1 jan 2019Operating Agent
Conclusion day 2 and complete workshop
Closing at 2pm