Task 1: Technologies – State of the art and ongoing developments for systems and components

The developments in the field of HTHPs are rapid and have an interdisciplinary character. Especially the compressor developments are not only based on conventional refrigeration compressors but also on components from process industries and on new technologies, which were beyond the scope of the previous Annexes. Task 1 focused on the technologies and aimed at giving an overview of current state-of-the-art technologies, as well as technologies at lower technology readiness levels, which are expected to enter the market within the coming years.  The focus was on the technologies and components, while the applications are covered by Tasks 2 and 3.

More specifically, Task 1 covered:

  • Overview of technologies including systems and components
  • Collection of demonstration cases
  • Ongoing research, development & demonstration projects
  • Technology development perspectives

Task 1 report

Technology review about supplier technologies and demonstration cases

As part of Task 1, we collected information about heat pump systems and successful demonstration cases. The review of heat pump systems includes both commercially available systems, as well as systems under development. The demonstration cases are based on systems in operation and focusing on the applications and end-user experiences.

Preliminary results of the technology review are shown in the tables below, including the descriptions for supplier technologies and demonstration cases. An analysis of the provided data is presented in the report.

The technology overview will remain open for new submissions and updated, and you are welcome to contribute with a description of a relevant technology or demonstration case by using the templates below. Please prepare the description in the Layout Scheme and follow the instructions in the Instructions Scheme.

The filled forms should be sent by email to Virginia Amato (vgm@dti.dk), Jonas Lundsted Poulsen (jlp@dti.dk) and Benjamin Zühlsdorf (bez@dti.dk).

Overview of development of supplier technologies

The following table gives an overview of the development level of different technologies for HTHPs.

SupplierCompressor typeWorking fluidCapacity Tmax supply TRL
Fuji ElectricReciprocatingR-245fa0.03 MW120 °C 9
EmersonScroll and EVI ScrollR-245fa, R410a,
R-718
0.03 MW 120 °C 6
Mayekawa (EcoSirocco)ReciproatingR-7440.1 MW 120 °C 9
Mayekawa (EcoCircuit) ReciprocatingR-1234ze(E)0.1 MW 100 °C 8-9
Skala FabrikkPistonR-290, R-6000.3 MW 115 °C 7
Kobelco Compressors Corp. (SGH165)Twin-screwR-245fa/R-134a,
R-718
0.4 MW 175 °C 9
Kobelco Compressors Corp. (SGH120) Twin-screwR-245fa0.4 MW120 °C9
Pars MakinaRolling pistonR-1233zd(E)0.5 MW150 °C6
Mitsubishi Heavy IndustriesTwo-stage centifugalR-134a0.6 MW 130 °C 9
ecopCentrifugalecop fluid 10.7 MW 150 °C 6-7
Mayekawa Europe (HS Comp)PistonR-6000.8 MW 120 °C 7
Kobelco Compressors Corp. (MSRC160L)Twin-screwR-7180.8 MW175 °C9
Mayekawa Europe (FC Comp)ScrewR-6011.0 MW 145 °C 5
GEASemi-hermetic pistonR-7440.1-1.2 MW 130 °C 8
FutraheatTurboClawR-1233zd0.3-1.5 MW150 °C6-7
FenagyReciprocatingR-7440.3-1.8 MW 120 °C 5-6
RankScrewR245fa, R-1336mzz(Z), R-1233zd(E) 0.12-2.0 MW 160 °C 7
SRMScrewR-7180.25-2.0 MW 165 °C 5
CombithermSemi-hermetic screwR-1233zd(E)0.3-3.3 MW120 °C9
Sustainable Process Heat PistonHFOs0.3-5.0 MW165 °C6-8
Johnson ControlsPistonR-717, R-7180.5-5.0 MW 120 °C 9
Johnson ControlsReciprocatingR-717, R-600 (cascade)0.5-5.0 MW 120 °C 7-8
ToCircleRolling pistonR-7180.3-5.0 MW 188 °C 7-8
Weel & SandvigTurboR-7181.0-5.0 MW 160 °C 4-9
OlvondoPiston (double acting)R-7040.5 MW 200 °C 9
HeatenPistonHCs, HFOs1.0-8.0 MW 200 °C 7-9
EnerinPistonR-7040.3-10.0 MW 250 °C 7
AGO EnergiePistonR-717 + R-7180.7-10.0 MW140 °C8-9
Aneo IndustryCentrifugal / PistonR-717, R-7181.2-10.0 MW 150 °C 7-8
EnertimeCentrifugalR-1336mzz(Z), R-1224yd(Z), R-1233zd(E)2.0-10.0 MW 160 °C 4-8
SpillingPistonR-7181.0-15.0 MW 280 °C 9
EpconCentrifugal fans and blowersR-718 and process vapors0.2-100.0 MW 210 °C 9
TurbodenIntegrally geared centrifugalApplication specific 1.0-40.0 MW 250 °C 5-9
MAN Energy SolutionsCentrifugal turbo with expanderR-74410.0-50.0 MW 150 °C 7-8
PillerTurboR-7181.0-70.0 MW 212 °C 8-9
Siemens EnergyTurbo (Geared / single-shaft)R-1233zd(E) /
R-1234ze(E)
8.0-70.0 MW 160 °C 9 (to 90 °C)
QpinchChemical adsorption heat transformerR-718, H3PO4 and derivatives>2.0 MW 230 °C 9
Ochsner Energie TechnikSemi-hermetic screwR1233zd0.5 MW130 °C9
Ochsner Energie TechnikSemi-hermetic screwR1233zd1.6 MW120 °C4
Last updated: 27-05-2024

Overview of demonstration cases

The following table gives an overview of performed demonstrations of different technologies for HTHPs.

SupplierIndustry / ProcessSource in → out Sink in → outRefrigerantCompressorCapacity COP
Mayekawa*Electronic /
Coil drying
30 °C → 25 °C 20 °C → 120 °C R-744Piston0.1 MW 3.1
AMT/AITMinerals /
Brick drying
88 °C → 84 °C 96 °C → 121 °C R-1336mzz(Z)Piston
(8 compr.)
0.3 MW 5.0
SkaleUPDairy /
Process water
20 °C → 12 °C 95 °C → 115 °C LT-C: R-290
HT-C: R-600
Piston0.3 MW 2.5
n. a.* Beverage /
Alcoholic distillation
78 °C → 75 °C n. a. → 140 °C n. a.n. a.0.4 MW5.2
AMT/AITFood /
Starch drying
76 °C → 72 °C 96 °C → 138 °C R-1336mzz(Z) Screw0.4 MW3.2
Rotrex, EpconSewage /
Sludge drying
n. a. → 100 °C n. a. → 146 °C R-718 Turbo
(2 stages)
0.5 MW4.5
MHI Electronic /
Coil drying
55 °C → 50 °C 70 °C → 130 °C R-134a Centrifugal0.6 MW3.0
Kobelco Sewage /
Sludge drying
93 °C → 93 °C 160 °C →160 °C R-718Twin-screw,
Roots blower
0.7 MW2.9
OilonDistillery60 °C → 60 °C 115 °C → 115 °C n. a.Piston1 MW5.0
Olvondo Pharma /
Recooling
36 °C → 34 °C 178 °C →183 °C R-704 Piston 1.5 MW1.7
KobelcoRefinery /
Bioethanol distillation
65 °C → 60 °C 20 °C →120 °C R-245fa Twin-screw1.9 MW3.5
QPinchChemical /
Steam prod.
120 °C →145 °C 140 °C→185 °C H2PO4Heat-driven2.9 MW 0.45 (COPheat,trans.)
Piller Plastics /
Thermal sep.
60 °C → 60 °C 126 °C →131 °C R-718Turbo
(8 blowers)
10.0 MW4.4
Spilling Pulp and paper /
Pulp drying
133 °C →105 °C n. a. → 201 °C R-718 Piston
(4 LT-, 2 HT-cyl.)
11.2 MW4.2
Spilling Chemical /
Chemical
152 °C →105 °C n. a. → 211 °C R-718Piston
(4 LT-, 2 HT-cyl.)
12.0 MW5.3
Ochsner Energie TechnikPulp and paper / Pulp drying55 °C →50 °C100 °C →110 °CR-1233zdsemi-hermetic screw0.3 MW3.2
Last updated: 27-05-2024

*Reference: Annex 48 – Industrial Heat Pumps – IEA HPT TCP ANNEX 48